Thursday, 21 June 2012

A Pilot Experiment to Aid Musician's Cramp

We have all had the uncomfortable experience of involuntary eye twitching, eye lid tics or muscle spasm. Gemma Correll is a professional illustrator who often refers to these eye twitches in the series of her daily diaries, attributing them to stress, fatigue or too much caffeine intake.

Illustration belonging to Gemma Correll's daily diaries where she explains an episode of eye twitching.
 Image posted with permission of Gemma Correll 

For professionals who rely on fine motor skills such as athletes or musicians, suffering from regular and consistent muscle twitches can have a great impact in their performance and truncate their careers. Traditionally these twitches have been linked to performance anxiety, or to lack of training, but increasing evidence is pointing that it is produced by faulty neural connections. What might have started as involuntary muscle twitches or muscle incoordination could be symptoms of a complex neurological movement disorder called dystonia. According to the  Dystonia Society it is estimated that only in the UK there are over 70,000 people suffer from this condition of which 8,000 are children. 

Focal dystonia can present itself as task specific, for example when writing (writer's cramp) or when playing an instrument (musician's cramp). It is estimated that 1% of professional musicians suffer from musician's cramp. 

Gemma Correll posing next to a mural she has painted. Image posted with permission from Gemma Correll
Dr Mark Edwards from the Institute of Neurology at University College London is currently piloting an experiment using transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) and transmagnetic cranial stimulation (TMS) to target faulty neural connections in musicians who suffer from focal hand dystonia. 

"There are musicians out there who are struggling and giving up their careers because of dystonia" Mark explains. 


Dr Mark Edwards in the Institute of Neurology, showing an old model of TMS with one coil

So are musicians relieved to learn that they have a medical condition rather a psychological condition? 


"That’s true, it speaks to the overlap they are told that it has to do with performance anxiety, which is not exactly true. What it is true is that musicians with dystonia tend to have higher levels of anxiety who musicians who do not have dystonia.



It is a very interesting interphase, but in society as soon as something is psychological, there is a sense that it is something that you are doing yourself and that you could snap out of it, as if it is something not real, and that you are weak. Psychological conditions are also generated by the brain, so it would be quite surprising that if the brain went wrong it wouldn’t have an impact on those aspects too. It is a matter of trying to explain to people that cognitive psychological issues are involved, so treatment can help".


What do we know today about dystonia? 

"The strongest theory is that dystonia is a product of abnormal brain plasticity. There are children who have dystonia that affects their whole body and adults that only have eye and head muscles affected, previously they were classified as different conditions when we know today that they are the same condition"

Nobody is born a professional music player, it takes years of practice and learning in order to play an instrument well. "Practice makes perfect", learning to do something new eventually gets easier and performance improves after training and repetition. The neural connections in the brain of the student have to undergo changes to establish a new skill, this capacity is called brain plasticity



Brain plasticity refers to any change in the neural system, from learning to aging, from memorizing to adapting to brain damage. Brain plasticity is the result of the formation of new connections between neurons or from changes in the strength of those connections. The strength and effectiveness of a neural connection is both activity and experience dependent. The more a neural connection is in use the more efficient it will become. This implies that the more you train doing something the better you get at it.   



Hence the phrase of the 1906 Nobel Prize winner Ramon y Cajal "All man can be, if it is his purpose, be the sculpturer of his own brain".



Professional musicians present an adaptive plastic reorganization of the neural connections in the motor and sensory cortical areas in the brain which are responsible for the coordination and muscle movements required to play an instrument. This allows musicians to perform precision movements at higher speed than a normal individual can do. The activation of the neural command to move a finger will trigger the inhibition of movements of the fingers next to it, so the musician can aim precisely at a note and not at another.

Photo of the modern model of TMS with two coils 

What happens in the brain of musicians with dystonia?

"In case of the musicians, they have pushed that particular body part to an extreme, which is the way your motor system changes, but in vulnerable people to this dystonia, this system is set in a different way, it is more sensitive, so these changes trigger complexity in the neuronal communication producing a spill over of muscle control".

Musician's cramp affects different muscles depending on the instrument that is played, for example violinists and pianists may present problems with finger, hand or arm movement, and wind players frequently present tongue or lip coordination problems. Because the prevalence of musician's cramp is not equivalent among all the distribution of instrumental groups this condition might be triggered by certain movements.

Musician playing the cello. In order to avoid copyright problems, image taken from wikipedia

Why musician's who have dystonia don't improve when training?  The more you practice the more efficient those particular neural connections should be.

"TMS stimulation protocols can induce plastic changes in the motor cortex, but when they are applied to individuals that have dystonia they show that their brain plasticity is affected. The excitation gets spread outside, so areas which are topographically near get excitation as well". 

"We don’t really know how plasticity works in abnormal situations, so TMS can help us understand how the brain works in these conditions". 

"With a simple associative thing, if you are playing the piano and you want to move one finger, the excitation in the motor cortex makes you move the finger next to it, so you might not play the note that you are aiming for. Your linking sensations with movement, you are thinking that you are doing a specific movement when actually the excitability is spreading to other muscles of nearby".

Prokofiev and Rostropovich. Image taken from wikipedia
So it’s a problem of balance between excitatory and inhibitory connections?

"Yes. Dystonia as a group they don’t have enough activity of their inhibitory circuits, so you can show that at cortical level, spinal cord level, brainstem level. There is a loss of inhibitory control. This was the idea but it seems that the problem is more complex. When observing people with dystonia caused by genetic problems, it is quite common to find people that carry the genetic mutation but do not have dystonia, they also have a similar loss of inhibition but they are clinically unaffected. So the argument is that the loss of inhibition is not enough".

Surround inhibition

"When moving just one finger, the contractions of the muscles are never really isolated, the whole forearm and hand also have certain degree of muscle contractions, to produce a fine movement, some degree of control over the excitability over these body parts is needed. When you are doing a small movement with one finger, the excitability of the surrounding fingers is reduced. People who suffer from focal hand dystonia seem to loose this surround inhibition, so the muscles from the neighbor fingers also contract" Mark explains.

The nervous system is capable of generating focused neural activity through a physiological mechanism called surround inhibition. Surround inhibition or lateral inhibition seems to result from a general organization pattern in neural connectivity, where excitatory neurons are surrounded by local inhibitory neurons, so the activation of one area also produces the inhibition of the neighboring areas.

The cytoarchitectonic structure of the mammal brain cortex presents a matrix of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Mice cortex. Stained in green are pyramidal neurons which are excitatory and on the back stained in red, GABA-ergic neurons which are inhibitory.  Image taken from wikipedia.


People who suffer from dystonia show an abnormal surround inhibition, where activation of certain motor commands produce an involuntary activation of other movements resulting in poor motor control. The abnormal surround inhibition observed in the motor cortex might be derived by abnormal motor signals coming other motor regions in the brain, such as the basal ganglia.


Pilot treatment of hand dystonia targeting muscles


Surround inhibition is also present in sensorimotor interaction, so moving one finger while stimulating adjacent fingers enhances surround inhibition. Mark and his team have applied this protocol to people who suffer from hand dystonia.


"A postdoctoral researcher Dr Panagiotis Kassaveti has studied nerve periphery issues in dystonia. He has given subjects stimulation in the surrounding muscle spindles at the same time they were performing the task related to their dystonia. The effect was short lived, but the surrounding inhibition of these subjects was enhanced improving their symptoms".

Dr Mark Edwards with a TMS (unplugged) device.

Pilot treatment of hand dystonia targeting the cerebellum.

Mark and his team are targeting faulty neural connections in the cerebellum that underlie the involuntary muscle twitches and block them with TDCS while the musicians are playing their instrument. Mark and his team expect that this protocol will allow the system to form a new adaptive neural network.


"When you are playing an instrument you are recalling a memory of the motor pattern necessary to play that instrument. During recollection, the memory becomes vulnerable to change. That is the basic idea", Mark says. 


Mark's first subject, a classic guitarist whos hand dystonia has affected his career, reported some mild shortlived benefit from the TDCS treatment. Encouraged by this, Mark and his team are working on a longer TDCS treatment that could produce changes in the long term.  


"We are currently doing a pilot, the first subject reported benefit after applying a stimulation protocol to his cerebellum. We might have found a effect but it is still short lived. We need to start running proper placebo controls" Mark explains.


"We don’t really know how plasticity works in abnormal situations, so TMS can help us understand how the brain works in these conditions".

Dr. Andrew Spence ( see previous post) who works in robots says that the cockroach is able to move better than any other robot that the NASA has been capable of designing ...

"If you think about robots and artificial intelligence, they can learn how they can play chess but when it comes to basic motor skills, they can hardly perform simple motor movements. 

In the video of the final of the robots playing football, the States against Japan, which is the pinnacle of technology, they display such a low level of performance when compared to a professional football player like Ronaldinho. Ronaldinho's skills are beyond what a robot can ever do".





I would like to thank Mark Edwards for his time and for sharing his work with the curious neuron's readers, and hope his pilot treatment can aid musician's with dystonia.  I would also like to thank Gemma Correll for letting me publish her work in this post. Without them this post wouldn't have been possible.

References

Altenmüller E, Baur V, Hofmann A, Lim V.K., Jabush H.C. "Musician's cramps as a manifestation of maladaptative brain plasticity: arguments from instrumental differences" Ann N YAcad Sci. 2012 Apr; 1252:259-65.

Beck S and Hallet M "Surround inhibition in the motor cortex" Exp Brain Res 2011; 210:165-172. 

Berlucchi G and Butchel H.A. "Neuronal plasticity: historical roots and evolution of meaning" Exp Brain Res 2009; 192:07-319

Edwards MJ, Talelli P,  Rothwell JC "Clinical applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with movement disorders". Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 827–40

Galea JM,Vazquez A, Pasricha N, Orban de Xivry J.J. And Celnik P. “Dissociating the roles of the cerebellum and motor cortex during adaptative learning: the motor cortex retains what the cerebellum does” Cereb Cortex 2011;21:1761-1770

117 comments:

  1. He is the best creative person today. After seeing this website http://gemmacorrell.com/ any web designer would be shocked with the work. Sample Contracts

    ReplyDelete
  2. that is so much good work nice to see all these things.. bestkreative thanks for sharing..

    ReplyDelete
  3. Oh that's great information you have to sharing everyone! and i appreciate for you thanks for sharing! BestKreative

    ReplyDelete
  4. Long weekend outing near delhi 2nd october long weekend packages near delhi
    The Terraces resort in Kanatal for holidays, Visit The Terraces Kanatal
    Tree house cottages near delhi, click Tree House Resort
    Treehouse hotel and SPA Bhiwadi, visit Treehouse hotel Bhiwadi
    Apartments for rent in Gurgaon, visit Apartments for rent in Gurgaon
    Weekend getaways from delhi, visit Weekend getaways from delhi
    Resorts around Delhi for weekend, visit resorts near delhi


    Resorts around Delhi for party, visit New year packages 2016
    Packages for resort near Delhi, visit new year packages near delhi

    ReplyDelete
  5. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  6. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Weekend getaways from delhi, visit Weekend getaways from delhi
    Hill stations near delhi for weekend, visit Hill stations near delhi
    Day outing near delhi, visit Day outing near Delhi
    Resorts near Jaipur for holidays, visit Resorts in jaipur
    Resorts in delhi for wedding, visit wedding venues and halls in Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  8. Muchos Gracias for your blog article.Really thank you! Keep writing.
    Dilwale full movie download

    Dilwale movie download

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic article.Much thanks again. Really Cool.
    Happy new year 2016 photos, pictures
    New year greeting card images

    ReplyDelete
  10. I really enjoy the blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.
    New year wishes 2016
    New year wishes

    ReplyDelete
  11. I truly appreciate this post.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.
    New year wishes 2016

    Happy new year wishes 2016

    ReplyDelete
  12. Very neat blog article.Much thanks again. Cool.
    Best Valentines Day Quotes

    ReplyDelete
  13. Jai Gangaajal 2016 Movie Torrent 720p Download Jai Gangaajal 2016 Hindi Full Movie, Jai Gangaajal Full Movie, kickass download, torrent movie, Jai Gangaajal torrent movie, online watch in Hd.
    http://www.jaigangaajaltorrentdownload.com/

    ReplyDelete
  14. Corbett National Park in Nainital districts of Uttarakhand. The city is said to be dream destination wildlife traveler as this is the sole park in India
    where richest concentrations of wildlife occur
    Jim Corbett Resorts

    ReplyDelete
  15. Major thankies for the article.Thanks Again. Want more.
    Holi Pictures For Facebook

    ReplyDelete
  16. Enjoy a holiday in the wilderness of Jim Corbett and catch a glimpse of Tiger and other wild animals in the lush forests of the national park.
    Marchula jim corbett resort
    Jamun Village jim corbett resort

    ReplyDelete
  17. Great info. I love all the posts, I really enjoyed, I would like more information about this, because it is very nice., Thanks for sharing.
    Signature:
    i like play happy wheels demo online and play happy wheels games full friv4school , games for girls , games go girls

    ReplyDelete
  18. This content is written very well. Your use of formatting when making your points makes your observations very clear and easy to understand. Thank you.
    - usps tracking
    - iphone 7 release date
    - netflix

    ReplyDelete
  19. Kings Club Despicable briefly jeepers much roughly sped ouch in one away supportive grateful.
    ICC Cricket World Cup 2016 @ http://www.icccricketworldcup.info/

    ReplyDelete
  20. تعتبر العاب تلبيس من اشهر الانواع في هذا المجال وهي بدورها تتضمن عدة اصناف جميلة ويعشقها الكتير وخاصة البنات منها العاب تلبيس ومكياج التي تمزج بين التلبيس وكذلك الميك اب في آن واحد هذا الامر الدي يزيد من جمالها وتجعل كل من يلعبها يستمتع بذلك زد على ذلك العاب تلبيس باربي التي تعرف شعبية كبيرة لانها شخصية مشهورة ويعرفها الصغير والكبير ولهم ذكريات جميلة معها لانها اشتهرت في عالم الكارتون والان اصبح الامر كذلك في مجال الالعاب وغير هذا هناك كذلك نوع آخر مميز ايضا وهو العاب تلبيس عرائس فالجميع يحلم ان يقوم بتلبيسهما لانها تذكرهم بهذه المناسبة الجميلة الا وهي الزواج التي تعتبر اهم مرحلة في حياة الانسان وهناك انواع مغايرة لها جمهور كبير في كل انحاء العالم وهي العاب قص الشعر ليس هي فقط بل توجد ايضا العاب طبخ التي يمكن للجميع لعبها سواء كانوا اولادا او بناتا وهي الاكتر طلبا في النت ويحبها الجميع ومعها ايضا العاب باربي التي تكلمنا عليها بكل انواعها تتنوع العاب فلاش وذلك على حسب كل شخص ورغبته فهناك عدة انواع منها وهناك من هي خاصة بالبنات واخرى للاولاد وتعتبر العاب تلبيس من اكتر الالعاب انتشارا في الويب وهي محبوبة عند الجميع ولديها جمهور واسع كما انها سهلة اللعب والجميع يمكنه لعبها بسهولة تامة بدون صعوبات تذكر كما ان هناك انواع اخرى متل العاب طبخ والعاب اكشن ومكياج و سيارات الى غير ذلك فلك صنف جمهوره ومحبيه ولكن تبقى العاب بنات الاكتر انتشارا وشعبيتنا في عالم العاب الفلاش كما انها تحتوي على شخصيات معروفة وغنية عن التعريف متل باربي و سندريلا وشخصيات اخرى تركت بصمتها في هذا المجال لهذا اصبح يعتمد عليها كتيرا في صنف العاب تلبيس بنات الدي تحبه البنات بكترة خاصة في العالم العربي مما يجعل المواقع الخاصة بهذا النوع تزداد يوما بعد الاخر فذلك ليس عبثا ففي الحقيقة نوع العاب التلبيس من اجمل اصناف العاب فلاش بصفة عامة و العاب بنات بصفة خاصة

    ReplyDelete
  21. All the best blogs that is very useful for keeping me share the ideas
    of the future as well this is really what I was looking for, and I am
    very happy to come here. Thank you very much
    earn to die
    earn to die 2
    earn to die 3
    Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the
    earn to die 4
    courage to go ahead and give youu a shout out from
    earn to die 6
    Austin Texas! Just wanted to tell
    earn to die 5
    Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the
    happy wheels
    strike force heroes
    slitherio
    you keep up the fantastic work!my weblog
    age of war

    ReplyDelete
  22. The best space for your child to relax!: wingsio
    slither io

    ReplyDelete
  23. I found lots of interesting information here.Great work
    Thanks for the share loved reading the article, please do share more like this wiht us .

    Temple Run 2
    Run 3
    Click Jogos
    Subway Surfers

    ReplyDelete
  24. Very awesome post , i am really impressed with it a lot.
    Tree House Resort
    Mussoorie Hotels

    ReplyDelete
  25. Welcome to Mussoorie. Perched on a ridge 2km high, the 'Queen of Hill Stations' vies with Nainital as Uttarakhand's favourite holiday destination.

    http://newyearpackages.co.in/new-year-packages-mussoorie.html

    ReplyDelete
  26. Jim Corbett National Park is a forested wildlife sanctuary in northern India’s Uttarakhand State. Rich in flora and fauna, it’s known for its Bengal tigers. Animals, including tigers, leopards and wild elephants, roam the Dhikala zone. On the banks of the Ramganga Reservoir, the Sonanadi zone is home to elephants and leopards, along with hundreds of species of birds.
    http://newyearpackages.co.in/new-year-packages-corbett.html

    ReplyDelete
  27. If you love bird watching then Corbett is virtual haven for such tourists. Corbett and its adjoining area is a home to more than 650 species of residents and migratory birds. Particularly Dhikala is fine place to look for birds of prey, more than over 50 species of raptors alone shows the healthy biodiversity of the area. Their multiplex behavior is intriguing and their varied songs are very much pleasing to the ear. In a nutshell, this finest national park of India is well known for rich and varied wildlife including royal Bengal tiger, elephant, four to five species of deer and rich birdlife.

    http://newyearpackages.co.in/new-year-packages-corbett.html

    ReplyDelete
  28. If you love bird watching then Corbett is virtual haven for such tourists. Corbett and its adjoining area is a home to more than 650 species of residents and migratory birds. Particularly Dhikala is fine place to look for birds of prey, more than over 50 species of raptors alone shows the healthy biodiversity of the area. Their multiplex behavior is intriguing and their varied songs are very much pleasing to the ear. In a nutshell, this finest national park of India is well known for rich and varied wildlife including royal Bengal tiger, elephant, four to five species of deer and rich birdlife.
    http://newyearpackages.co.in/new-year-packages-corbett.html

    ReplyDelete
  29. Manali is a high-altitude Himalayan resort town in India’s northern Himachal Pradesh state.

    http://newyearpackages.co.in/new-year-packages-manali.html

    ReplyDelete
  30. Manali is a high-altitude Himalayan resort town in India’s northern Himachal Pradesh state. It has a reputation as a backpacking center and honeymoon destination. Set on the Beas River, it’s a gateway for skiing in the Solang Valley and trekking in Parvati Valley.
    http://newyearpackages.co.in/new-year-packages-manali.html

    ReplyDelete
  31. New Year packages 2017 in resorts near Delhi, NCR Night Stay, DJ, Gala ... Plan your great holiday make out in Resorts near Delhi, Gurgaon, Manesar
    http://newyearpackage.co.in/

    ReplyDelete
  32. Get Best Discounts on New Year Packages 2017 for Hotels and resorts near delhi. New Year Eve Party in Hill Stations, Wild Life Places.
    http://newyearpackage.co.in/

    ReplyDelete
  33. Jaipur is the capital of India’s Rajasthan state. It evokes the royal family that once ruled the region and that, in 1727, founded what is now called the Old City, or “Pink City” for its trademark building color. At the center of its stately street grid (notable in India) stands the opulent, colonnaded City Palace complex. With gardens, courtyards and museums, part of it is still a royal residence.
    http://newyearpackage.co.in/jaipur-new-year-packages.html

    ReplyDelete
  34. Ranthambore National Park is a vast wildlife reserve near the town of Sawai Madhopur in Rajasthan, northern India. It is a former royal hunting ground and home to tigers, leopards and marsh crocodiles. Its landmarks include the imposing 10th-century Ranthambore Fort, on a hilltop, and the Ganesh Mandir temple. Also in the park, Padam Talao Lake is known for its abundance of water lilies.
    http://newyearpackage.co.in/ranthambore-new-year-packages.html

    ReplyDelete
  35. This information gives many information with which you can prize the certainty. I really take pleasure in your effort. continue within near future.texas ecommerce design

    ReplyDelete
  36. New Year Packages 2017 near Delhi NCR. New Year 2017 is an

    occasion of delights. So let's celebrate it together with

    enjoyable and a wonderful seasoning
    http://resortsneardelhi.co.in/NewYearPackages-5

    ReplyDelete
  37. New Year Packages 2017 near Delhi NCR. New Year 2017 is an

    occasion of delights. So let's celebrate it together with

    enjoyable and a wonderful seasoning

    http://newyearpackage.co.in/

    ReplyDelete
  38. New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one. Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner.
    http://newyearpackagesneardelhi.com/

    ReplyDelete
  39. Very neat post.Much thanks again. Great.

    Mp3 Songspk Download

    ReplyDelete
  40. Observe New Year's Eve in style by heading out to experience it in one of the world's most energizing goals with British Airways. Mark the commencement to 2017 with a New Year's Eve break to one of the numerous urban areas we travel to overall, for example, Edinburgh, New York, Rio or Sydney, and wake up to a radical new view on New Year's Day. Visit: New Year Packages 2017

    ReplyDelete
  41. Observe New Year's Eve in style by heading out to experience it in one of the world's most energizing goals with British Airways. Mark the commencement to 2017 with a New Year's Eve break to one of the numerous urban areas we travel to overall, for example, Edinburgh, New York, Rio or Sydney, and wake up to a radical new view on New Year's Day. visit: New Year Packages Near Delhi 2017

    ReplyDelete

  42. Is it true that you are wanting to take an amazing excursion for New Year 2017 gathering? On the off chance that yes then you are at ideal spot for New Year Packages 2017. We have numerous choices for New Year bundles close Delhi in Resorts. visit: New Year Packages 2017

    ReplyDelete

  43. New Year Packages 2017 near Delhi:-
    Is it true that you are wanting to take an amazing excursion for New Year 2017 gathering? On the off chance that yes then you are at ideal spot for New Year Packages 2017. We have numerous choices for New Year bundles close Delhi in Resorts.visit: New Year Packages Near Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  44. Thank you for sharing this helpful post! Do you need fake ray ban sunglasses? Go to have a look and you may find a desirable one.

    ReplyDelete
  45. Observe New Year's Eve in style by heading out to experience it in one of the world's most energizing goals with British Airways. Mark the commencement to 2017 with a New Year's Eve break to one of the numerous urban areas we travel to overall, for example, Edinburgh, New York, Rio or Sydney, and wake up to a radical new view on New Year's Day. visit: New Year Packages Near delhi

    ReplyDelete
  46. Thank you so much for this posts this is amazing and great info. thanks again brother good luck for the next. car games. http://jeuxjeux99.blogspot.com العاب سيارات

    ReplyDelete
  47. The Terraces, a boutique spa resort that is a valuable gem in the crown of Uttarakhand gives you a striking, charming and propping occasion encounter. Set in the midst of grand woodlands of pine, the immaculate hotel, travel, Wellness, experience, gathering, feasting, and amusement offices at The Terraces mix delightfully with nature's abundance.
    Visit: The Terraces Kanatal

    ReplyDelete
  48. The blog or and best that is extremely useful to keep I can share the ideas. Age Of War 2
    Big Farm | Slitherio | Tank Trouble
    Of the future as this is really what I was looking for, I am very comfortable and pleased to come here. Thank you very much.
    Happy Wheels | Goodgeme Empire | Slither.io

    ReplyDelete

  49. Poisoned bait is a common method for controlling rat populations, however is not as effective when there are other food sources around, such as garbage. Poisoned meats have been used for centuries for killing off wolves, birds that were seen to threaten crops, and against other creatures. This can be a problem, since a carcass which has been poisoned will kill not only the targeted animal,
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالرياض شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر شركة مكافحة حشرات بالجبيل شركة مكافحة حشرات بابها شركة مكافحة حشرات بالطائف شركة مكافحة حشرات بجازان

    ReplyDelete
  50. Poisoned bait is a common method for controlling rat populations, however is not as effective when there are other food sources around, such as garbage. Poisoned meats have been used for centuries for killing off wolves, birds that were seen to threaten crops, and against other creatures. This can be a problem, since a carcass which has been poisoned will kill not only the targeted animal,شركة مكافحة حشرات بالقصيم شركة مكافحة حشرات بجدة شركة مكافحه النمل الابيض بالقصيم شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بجدة شركة مكافحة حشرات بحائل شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بحائل شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالمدينه المنوره شركة مكافحة حشرات بتبوك شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخرج

    ReplyDelete
  51. but also every other animal which feeds on the carcass. Humans have also been killed by coming in contact with poisoned meat, or by eating an animal which had fed on a poisoned carcass. This tool is also used to manage several caterpillars e.g. Spodoptera litura, fruit flies, snails and slugs, crabs etc.
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالاحساء شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالمدينه المنوره
    شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالرياض شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض شركة مكافحة حشرات بجدة شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بجدة شركة رش مبيدات بجدة شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام


    ReplyDelete
  52. Adelaide is home to many species of cockroaches, including the Australian, American and smaller German varieties. The latter can pose a risk to electrical appliances, which they can invade. Cockroach droppings are also hazardous to health and can trigger asthma attacks and allergies. It is usually necessary to undertake a fumigation treatment to eradicate cockroaches. Our team understands the need to get rid of cockroaches without endangering your health in the long-term. We use cockroach bait gels together with pesticide fumigation with a low toxic formulation.etc. شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام شركة رش مبيدات بالدمام شركة مكافحة حشرات بالاحساء شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض+++ we wait you here شركة تنظيف منازل بالرياض شركة تنظيف مجالس بالرياض شركة تنظيف موكيت بالرياض شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض

    ReplyDelete

  53. but also every other animal which feeds on the carcass. Humans have also been killed by coming in contact with poisoned meat, or by eating an animal which had fed on a poisoned carcass. This tool is also used to manage several caterpillars e.g. Spodoptera litura, fruit flies, snails and slugs, crabs etc. شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالرياض شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض شركة نقل عفش بالرياض شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالرياض شركة تسليك مجارى بالرياض شركة تنظيف فلل بالرياض

    good good good

    ReplyDelete

  54. New Year Packages Near Delhi Book Now:-
    Observe New Year's Eve in style by heading out to experience it in one of the world's most energizing goals with British Airways. Visit: New Year Packages Near Delhi

    ReplyDelete

  55. New Year 2017 is an event of pleasures. So we should praise it together with charming and a brilliant flavoring of move gathering, boundless beverages, mixed drink, barkeeps, bucketful of snacks, commencement to be the most energizing one and exquisite scrumptious food stuff with New Year bundles close Delhi.
    Visit: New Year Packages 2017

    ReplyDelete
  56. ew Year 2017 is an event of pleasures. So we should praise it together with charming and a brilliant flavoring of move gathering
    العاب سيارات
    http://www.carsgamesplay.com/

    ReplyDelete

  57. In the event that you need to sort out huge social or business occasions then there can be no preferred place over tradition focuses. In Delhi NCR, one can discover a lot of inns with tradition focus office to organize occasions like conferences, get-togethers, displays, arrange appears and other vital events.visit: Confrence Vanues in Delhi Ncr

    ReplyDelete
  58. Weddings are extraordinary so why get hitched in a normal place. It is not obligatory to have a goal wedding. There are a lot of stunning wedding settings in and around Delhi you ought to look at on the off chance that you are making arrangements for a wedding at any point in the near future. Visit: http://resorts.neardelhi.in/wedding-venues-delhi.html

    ReplyDelete
  59. These are some great tools that i definitely use for SEO work. This is a great list to use in the future.international money transfer services

    ReplyDelete
  60. Such a very useful article. Very interesting to read this article.I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome article.

    Discover our website bounty of free online games now!
    Our website has the biggest collection of free online games. Totally new games are added every day!

    age of war 2
    gold Miner 2
    unfair Mario 2
    cubefield 2
    tanki Online 2

    ReplyDelete
  61. Everybody have particular arrangements for a getaway or a New Year party Near Delhi as it is the a standout amongst the most event places in the nation.Visit: New Year Packages Near Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  62. I know you probably hear this all the time, but you are such an inspiration! today's post really helped me take my eyes off of me. you reminded me that i need to put things back in perspective...thanks so much!
    near me store

    ReplyDelete
  63. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  64. I am very thankful to you and Tq so much for interesting stuff. i am wating for next post


    bollywood actress photoshoot

    ReplyDelete
  65. Thanks for sharing such a very fantasting post... for every readers...Latest showbox apk for free Movies

    ReplyDelete

  66. decent! much obliged to you to such an extent! Much obliged to

    you for sharing.

    Thanksgiving Images

    ReplyDelete
  67. I am very thankful to you and Tq so much for interesting stuff. i am wating for next post


    i file ios 10

    ReplyDelete
  68. I wanted to thank you for this excellent read!! I definitely loved every little bit of it.Cheers for the info!!!! & This is the perfect blog for anyone who wants to know about this topic
    baixar facebook , baixar facebook gratis , facebook baixar ,

    ReplyDelete
  69. Your article made me very impressed. I enjoyed it, I would expect at your website, or more articles
    baixar whatsapp. baixar whatsapp gratis. whatsapp baixar.

    ReplyDelete
  70. In your article, points caught my attention the most is how your prose, to give me a deep impression. Wish you would write more. good luck!
    return man 2 game , return man 2 , return man ,

    ReplyDelete
  71. Easily, the article is actually the best topic on this registry related issue. I fit in with your conclusions and will eagerly look forward to your next updates. Just saying thanks will not just be sufficient, for the fantasti c lucidity in your writing. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates.
    subway surfers game , subway surfer , subway surfers ,

    ReplyDelete
  72. Everybody have particular arrangements for a getaway or a New Year party Near Delhi as it is the a standout amongst the most event places in the nation.So on the off chance that you are hoping to do a festival close Delhi then the accompanying data may offer assistance.Visit: http://resorts.neardelhi.in/new-year-packages-delhi.html

    ReplyDelete


  73. New Year 2017 is an event of pleasures. So we should praise it together with charming and a brilliant flavoring of move gathering, boundless beverages, mixed drink, barkeeps, bucketful of snacks, commencement to be the most energizing one and exquisite scrumptious food stuff with New Year bundles close Delhi.
    visit: New Year Packages 2017

    ReplyDelete
  74. Life after hours of work stress and fatigue is the space I really love. I can play games, take photos or simply surfing facebook, chatting with friends. It made me feel so comfortable and pleasan
    baixar facebook l square quick

    ReplyDelete
  75. I think what you say on here is the best thing. Looking forward for our lives become increasingly more beautiful
    return man 3 , subway surf , hola launcher app , pokemon go game , minecraft

    ReplyDelete